PRN: China Drives Global Growth for Calcium Carbonate Demand

10/mag/2012 15.58.02 PR Newswire Turismo Contatta l'autore

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China Drives Global Growth for Calcium Carbonate Demand

 
[10-May-2012]
 

LONDON, May 10, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --

Ground and Precipitated Calcium Carbonate: Global industry markets and outlook, 2012 (1st Edition)

The focus of the calcium carbonate industry is changing.  Demand and production levels are rising in Asia as the more traditional markets of Europe and North America face their own challenges.  Asia is now the fastest growing regional market for ground calcium carbonate (GCC) and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC), mainly driven by the expansion in the Chinese paper and plastics sectors. According to the latest report from Roskill, in total, the region consumed almost half of the GCC and PCC global demand of 74Mt in 2011, with China alone taking over 20%.

Paper remains the primary market

The use of calcium carbonate by the paper industry has grown significantly in recent years, in part reflecting an overall increase in paper production. Paper output in Asia rose by nearly 6%py over the past decade aided by the construction of new large scale paper mills. Demand for GCC and PCC also grew because of increased mineral loadings in paper to reduce consumption of more expensive pulp and to meet the rising demand for high-brightness paper.

The plastics industry is the second largest market for calcium carbonate and the Asian region leads the world in terms of consumption. Roskill estimates that just under 60% of global GCC consumption in plastics is in Asia and for PCC, this share is even higher at over 85%.  These figures reflect the increasing concentration of the plastics industry in Asia and the fact that PCC has been used in the Chinese industry for far longer than GCC.

PVC providing growth momentum in China

Both minerals are widely used as fillers in rigid PVC, which is produced in large amounts (over 36Mt in 2010) and often has high mineral loadings. Growth in PVC demand in industrialised countries was adversely affected by the recession in the construction industry in the late 2000s.  Chinese PVC production, however, has risen by an average of 17%py over the last decade and by 2010, Chinese companies accounted for over 40% of world PVC capacity.

GCC capacity widespread

Global combined capacity for GCC and PCC is over 100Mtpy.  GCC capacity is estimated to exceed over 80Mtpy and located in 70 countries, reflecting the wide availability of marble and limestone raw materials.  Capacity exceeds 2Mtpy in only eight countries and is highest in China (20Mtpy) and the USA (>14Mtpy), followed by Spain (3.7Mtpy) and Norway (3.2Mtpy).  PCC capacity is more concentrated than that of GCC on a national level, with the total PCC capacity identified by Roskill as over 17Mtpy, with China accounting for nearly half and the USA for a further 17%.

The calcium carbonate industry is characterised by a few multinational producers and thousands of often very small producers. Twelve companies control around half of  global GCC and PCC capacity.  The three leading producers (Omya, Imerys and MTI) together holding over 40% of GCC capacity and 35% of PCC capacity.  

China leading growth in output

Growth in GCC and PCC output in recent years has been led by China.  GCC production did not start in China until the 1990s but its share of global calcium carbonate output is forecast to rise to over 70% in the next few years.  Combined production of GCC and PCC in China grew by 7%py between 2008 and 2011, equally divided between the two forms.  Much of the recent increase in output was of dry ground calcium carbonate (DGCC), which is used in plastics.  Over the last decade, a number of very large paper mills have come on-stream between Anqing and Shanghai that have satellite wet ground calcium carbonate (WGCC) plants based on marble feedstock from local deposits.  

Asia to account for over 50% of global demand by 2016

Overall world demand for GCC and PCC is forecast to rise by just over 3%py from 74Mt in 2011 to 90Mt in 2016.  Continuing the pattern seen over the past few years, growth in terms of geographical area will be led by Asia.  By 2016, Asia is projected to account for 52% of the forecast world total consumption compared with 48% in 2011.

Growth in terms of end use markets will still be led by the paper and plastics industries. The paper industry will remain the leading market for both forms of calcium carbonate through to 2016.  Growth in this market is forecast at 3.1%py, with strong growth in Asia, driven by rising paper production and higher filler loadings. This will be partially offset by lower growth in industrialised countries where there is surplus papermaking capacity and rising use of digital media.  Growth in PCC demand is likely to be slightly higher than for GCC.

 In the plastics industry, growth in combined world demand for GCC and PCC is projected to rise at nearly 5%py through to 2016.  Nearly 80% of additional demand through to 2016 will be located in Asia, mainly in China where over 10Mtpy of new PVC capacity is planned to come on-stream over the next few years.  By 2016, China and India are together estimated to account for more than 45% of world PVC demand.

Ground and Precipitated Calcium Carbonate: Global industry markets and outlook, 1st Edition, 2012 is available at £3500 / US$5800 / €4600 from Roskill Information Services Ltd, 54 Russell Road, London SW19 1QL ENGLAND. Tel: +44-20-8417-0087. Fax +44-20-8417-1308 Email: info@roskill.co.uk   Web: http://www.roskill.com/reports/industrial-minerals/ground-and-precipitated-calcium-carbonate-1 

Note to editors

For further information on this report, please contact Alison Saxby (alison@roskill.co.uk ).  To be added to our press distribution list, please contact Isobel Jarvis (Isobel@roskill.co.uk ).

     Ground and Precipitated Calcium Carbonate: Global industry markets and     outlook     Table of Contents                           1 Summary                                            1                             Types, resources and chemistry of calcium                         2 carbonate rocks                                    7                       2.1 Types of carbonate rocks                           7     2.1.1                 Limestone                                          8     2.1.2                 Chalk                                              8     2.1.3                 Marble                                             8     2.1.4                 Dolomite                                           8                           Resources and mining of calcium carbonate                       2.2 rocks                                              9                           3 Processing of ground calcium carbonate            12                       3.1 Processing methods for GCC                        13     3.1.1                 Dry processing ground calcium carbonate           15     3.1.2                 Wet processing ground calcium carbonate           15                             Processing of precipitated calcium                         4 carbonate                                         18                       4.1 Carbonation process                               18                       4.2 Solvay process                                    21                       4.3 Lime-soda process                                 21                       4.4 CalciTech process                                 22                       4.5 Filler recycling                                  22                           Council for Scientific and Industrial                       4.6 Research (CSIR)                                   23                       4.7 Grades of PCC                                     24                             Chemical and physical properties of GCC and                         5 PCC                                               26                           6 World GCC and PCC capacity and production         29                       6.1 Control of GCC and PCC capacity by company        33                       6.2 GCC and PCC expansions and projects               34                       6.3 World production of GCC and PCC                   35                             Production of GCC and PCC by country and                         7 company                                           38                       7.1 Albania                                           38                       7.2 Algeria                                           38                       7.3 Argentina                                         38     7.3.1                 Producers of calcium carbonate in Argentina       39     7.3.1.1               Omya                                              39     7.3.1.2               Imerys                                            40     7.3.1.3               La Buena Esperanza SRL                            40     7.3.1.4               Ceras San Juan SA                                 40     7.3.1.5               SCR-Sibelco NV                                    40     7.3.1.6               Cargas Minerales San Juan SA (Camisaju)           41     7.3.1.7               Minera Cema SAICyF                                41                       7.4 Australia                                         41     7.4.1                 Producers of GCC in Australia                     41     7.4.1.1               Omya                                              42     7.4.1.2               SCR-Sibelco NV                                    42     7.4.2                 Potential producers of GCC in Australia           43     7.4.3                 Former producers of GCC in Australia              43                       7.5 Austria                                           43     7.5.1                 Producers of GCC and PCC in Austria               43     7.5.1.1               Omya                                              44     7.5.1.2               Alpha Calcit Füllstoff GmbH & Company KG          45                           Mühlendorfer Kreidefabrik Margit     7.5.1.3               Hoffmann-Ostenhof KG                              45     7.5.1.4               Solvay Advanced Functional Minerals (SAFM)        45     7.5.1.5               Schaefer Kalk GmbH                                46                       7.6 Bangladesh                                        46                       7.7 Belgium                                           46     7.7.1                 Producers of GCC in Belgium                       46     7.7.1.1               Imerys                                            47     7.7.1.2               Omya                                              47     7.7.1.3               Calcaires de la Sambre SA                         48     7.7.1.4               SCR-Sibelco NV                                    48                       7.8 Bolivia                                           48                       7.9 Brazil                                            49     7.9.1                 Producers of GCC and PCC in Brazil                49     7.9.1.1               Imerys                                            51     7.9.1.2               Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)          51     7.9.1.3               Omya                                              52                           Micron-Ita Indústria e Comércio de Minerais     7.9.1.4               Ltda                                              53     7.9.1.5               Mineração Braminex                                53     7.9.1.6               Mineração Ouro Branco Limitada                    53     7.9.1.7               SCR-Sibelco NV                                    53     7.9.1.8               Mineração Bragao                                  53     7.9.1.9               Lagos Industria Química                           53     7.9.1.10              Quimvale                                          54     7.9.1.11              Other producers of GCC and PCC in Brazil          54                       7.1 Bulgaria                                          55                      7.11 Canada                                            55     7.11.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Canada                55     7.11.1.1              Omya                                              56     7.11.1.2              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)          56     7.11.1.3              Imasco Minerals Incorporated                      57     7.11.1.4              Graymont Limited                                  57     7.11.1.5              Produits ALBA Incorporated                        58     7.11.2                GCC projects in Canada                            58     7.11.2.1              Arianne Resources Incorporated                    58     7.11.2.2              Fortune Minerals Limited                          59                      7.12 Chile                                             59     7.12.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Chile                 59     7.12.1.1              Omya                                              60     7.12.1.2              SCR-Sibelco                                       60     7.12.1.3              Other producers of GCC in Chile                   60                      7.13 China                                             61     7.13.1                Reserves of calcium carbonate in China            61     7.13.2                Production of GCC and PCC in China                62     7.13.2.1              Production of GCC in China                        63     7.13.2.2              Production of PCC in China                        64     7.13.3                Producers of GCC and PCC in China                 68     7.13.3.1              Asia Pulp and Paper                               75     7.13.3.2              Imerys                                            76     7.13.3.3              Mae Lin Tai Chemical Company                      77                           Guangxi Hezhou Kelong Micro-powder Company     7.13.3.4              Limited                                           77     7.13.3.5              Omya                                              78     7.13.3.6              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)          78                           Anhui Guofeng Non-Metallic High-Tech     7.13.3.7              Materials Company                           Limited                                           79                           Guangxi Guilin Jinshan Chemical Company     7.13.3.8              Limited                                           79                           Shouguang Cailun Shenxing Fine Chemical     7.13.3.9              Company Limited                                   79     7.13.3.10             ShengdaTech Incorporated                          80                           Dujiangyan Calcium Carbonate Company     7.13.3.11             Limited                                           81                           Guangdong Enping Jiawei Chemical Industry     7.13.3.12             Company Limited                                   81     7.13.3.13             Yanzhou Gaoxu Chemical Company Limited            82     7.13.3.14             Shandong Changyun Calcium Industry Limited        82                           Jiangxi Province Gaofeng Chemical Mineral     7.13.3.15             Development                           Company Limited                                   82                           Fujian Sanmu Nano Calcium Carbonate Company     7.13.3.16             Limited                                           83                           Zhejiang Xuefeng Calcium Carbonate Company     7.13.3.17             Limited                                           83                           Zhejiang Changshan Longshan Calcium     7.13.3.18             Carbonate Company                           Limited                                           83                           Jiangsu Changzhou Calcium Carbonate Company     7.13.3.19             Limited                                           83     7.13.3.20             Jiaozuo Xunfang Inorganic Chemical Plant          84                           Sichuan Dujiangyan Yunyi Calcium Carbonate     7.13.3.21             Company Limited                                   84                           Zhejiang Jiande Jinchun Fine Calcium     7.13.3.22             Company Limited                                   84                           Jiangxi Taihua Calcium Carbonate Company     7.13.3.23             Limited                                           84                           Yixing Kanghui Calcium Carbonate Company     7.13.3.24             Limited                                           84     7.13.3.25             Tangshan Tianying Chemical Company Limited        85                           Yixing Tianli Building Material and     7.13.3.26             Chemical Company Limited                          85     7.13.3.27             Shandong Donggao Chemical Company Limited         85                           Dangyang Shi Chang Banpo Calcium Company     7.13.3.28             Limited                                           85                           Guangxi Shanglin Man Ting Fang Calcium     7.13.3.29             Carbonate Company                           Limited                                           85                           Jilin Tianze Nanometer Material Company     7.13.3.30             Limited                                           86                           Jingxing Huabei Calcium Carbonate Company     7.13.3.31             Limited                                           86     7.13.3.32             Jingxian Huahui Mining Company Limited            86     7.13.3.33             Lida Micron Industry Company Limited              86     7.13.3.34             Lih Hsiang Industrial Corporation                 86     7.13.3.35             Shanghai Yaohua Nano-Tech Company Limited         87     7.13.3.36             Tongling Yinben Minerals Company Limited          87     7.13.3.37             Zhejiang Junxiang Mining Company Limited          87                           Zhejiang Province Jiande City Zheng-Fa     7.13.3.38             Enterprise Limited                                87     7.13.3.39             Zibo Huaxin Chemical Company Limited              87     7.13.3.40             Henan Keli New Materials Company Limited          88                           Fujian Sannong Calcium Carbonate Company     7.13.3.41             Limited                                           88                           Changxing Jinshi Superfine Powder Chemical     7.13.3.42             Company Limited                                   88     7.13.3.43             Changzhou Calcium Carbonate Company Limited       88                           Hebei Lude Chemical Industry Company     7.13.3.44             Limited                                           88                           Changxing Jinshi Superfine Powder Company     7.13.3.45             Limited                                           89                           Jiangxi Taihua Calcium Carbonate Company     7.13.3.46             Limited                                           89     7.13.3.47             Shanghai Calcium Carbonate Factory                89     7.13.3.48             Jiangxi Guangyuan Chemical Company Limited        89     7.13.3.49             Guilin Wangshan Chemical Company Limited          89                           Fujian Yongding Fengyuan Light Calcium Carbonate     7.13.3.50             Chemicals                           Limited                                           90                           Hebei Jingxing Chenglong Calcium Carbonate     7.13.3.51             Company Limited                                   90                           Hunan Leiyang Chaopai Chemical Company     7.13.3.52             Limited                                           90     7.13.3.53             Juxing Mineral Industry Company Limited           90                           Quzhou Jinniu Calcium Carbonate Company     7.13.3.54             Limited                                           90     7.13.3.55             Shunxing Powder Company Limited                   91     7.13.3.56             Micro Stone Group                                 91     7.13.3.57             Fengyuan Calcium Carbonate Company Limited        91                           Shanghai Xuanhu Industrial and Trade Development     7.13.3.58             Company                           Limited                                           91                           Zhejiang Jiande Longhua Plastic Chemical     7.13.3.59             Company Limited                                   91                           Degao Powder Engineering Development     7.13.3.60             Company Limited                                   92     7.13.3.61             Fujian Longpu Light Calcium Factory               92     7.13.3.62             Guneng Micrometric Material Company Limited       92                           Jingxing County Huamao Calcium Carbonate     7.13.3.63             Factory                                           92                           Liaoyang Jinwang Calcium Carbonate Company     7.13.3.64             Limited                                           92                           Tianhe Paper Ground Calcium Carbonate     7.13.3.65             Company Limited                                   92     7.13.3.66             Xingcheng Ground Calcium Carbonate Factory        93     7.13.3.67             Chanxing County Yufeng Micropowder Factory        93                           Zhejiang Jiande Tianshi Calcium Carbonate     7.13.3.68             Company Limited                                   93                           Zibo Jinchuan Hongfeng Chemical Company     7.13.3.69             Limited                                           93                           Changshan Nanfang Calcium Carbonate Company     7.13.3.70             Limited                                           93                           Jiangxi Huaming Nanometer Calcium Carbonate     7.13.3.71             Company                           Limited                                           94                           Yangzhou Qunxin Powder Materials Company     7.13.3.72             Limited                                           94                           Shijiazhuang Jingxing Huawang Calcium     7.13.3.73             Carbonate Company                           Limited                                           94                           Dalian Keli Super Fine Powder Company     7.13.3.74             Limited                                           94                           Hangzhou Advanced Technological Chemical     7.13.3.75             Company Limited                                   94     7.13.3.76             Sanwhy Powder Materials Company Limited           95                           Schaefer Kalk Calcium Carbonate (Hangzhou)     7.13.3.77             Company Limited                                   95                           Shijiazhuang Boda Calcium Industry Company     7.13.3.78             Limited                                           95                           Baoxing County Xuetao Powdered Whiting     7.13.3.79             Factory                                           95     7.13.3.80             Shanghai Da Yu Biochemistry Company Limited       95     7.13.3.81             Five Circle Industrial Company Limited            96     7.13.3.82             Huayi Industrial Company Limited                  96                           Shanghai Okutama Calcium Carbonate Company     7.13.3.83             Limited                                           96     7.13.3.84             Longfa Superfine Powder Company Limited           96                           Potential producers of calcium carbonate in     7.13.4                China                                             96                           Sichuan Yingjing Kaiquan Industrial Company     7.13.4.1              Limited                                           96     7.13.4.2              Fushun Yunaite Calcium Company Limited            97                      7.14 Colombia                                          97     7.14.1                Producers of GCC in Colombia                      97     7.14.1.1              Omya                                              97     7.14.1.2              SCR-Sibelco                                       98                      7.15 Croatia                                           98                      7.16 Cuba                                              98                      7.17 Czech Republic                                    99                           Producers of GCC and PCC in the Czech     7.17.1                Republic                                          99     7.17.1.1              Omya                                              99     7.17.1.2              Schaefer Kalk GmbH & Company KG                  100     7.17.1.3              Tonaso Holding a.s.                              100     7.17.1.4              Vznik Kalcit s.r.o.                              100                      7.18 Denmark                                          100     7.18.1                Producers of GCC in Denmark                      100     7.18.1.1              Omya                                             101     7.18.1.2              Dankalk A/S                                      101                      7.19 Dominican Republic                               102                       7.2 Ecuador                                          102                      7.21 Egypt                                            102     7.21.1                Producers of GCC in Egypt                        102     7.21.1.1              ASEC Company for Mining (ASCOM)                  103     7.21.1.2              Omya                                             103                      7.22 Finland                                          104     7.22.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Finland              105     7.22.1.1              Suomen Karbonaatti Oy                            106     7.22.1.2              Omya                                             106     7.22.1.3              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)         107     7.22.1.4              Schaefer Kalk GmbH and Company KG                108                      7.23 France                                           108     7.23.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in France               109     7.23.1.1              Omya                                             110     7.23.1.2              Provençale SA                                    110     7.23.1.3              Imerys SA                                        111     7.23.1.4              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)         117     7.23.1.5              Solvay Advanced Functional Minerals              117     7.23.1.6              Scora SA                                         118                      7.24 Germany                                          118     7.24.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Germany              118     7.24.1.1              Omya                                             119     7.24.1.2              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)         120     7.24.1.3              Alpha Calcit Füllstoff GmbH and Company KG       121     7.24.1.4              Geomin Erzgebirgische Kalkwerke GmbH             121     7.24.1.5              Schön+Hippelein GmbH and Company KG              122     7.24.1.6              Schaefer Kalk GmbH and Company KG                122     7.24.1.7              Solvay Advanced Functional Minerals (SAFM)       123     7.24.1.8              CalciTech Limited                                123     7.24.1.9              FELS-Werke GmbH                                  123     7.24.1.10             Dr Paul Lohmann GmbH KG                          124                      7.25 Ghana                                            124                      7.26 Greece                                           124     7.26.1                Producers of GCC in Greece                       124     7.26.1.1              Ionian Kalk S.A.                                 125     7.26.1.2              Omya                                             125     7.26.1.3              Microfill K. Zafranas SA                         126     7.26.1.4              Dionyssosmarble SA                               126                      7.27 Haiti                                            126                      7.28 Hungary                                          126                      7.29 India                                            127     7.29.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in India                127     7.29.1.1              20 Microns Limited                               129     7.29.1.2              Minerals Technologies                            130     7.29.1.3              Calchem Industries (India) Limited               131     7.29.1.4              Gulshan Polyols Limited                          131     7.29.1.5              Imerys                                           132     7.29.1.6              Fimakem India Limited                            132                           Marvelore Mining and Allied Industries (P)     7.29.1.7              Limited                                          132     7.29.1.8              Lime Chemicals Limited                           132                           Shree Sai Calnates India Private Limited     7.29.1.9              (SSCIPL)                                         133     7.29.1.10             Omya                                             133     7.29.1.11             Vimal Microns Limited                            133     7.29.1.12             Wolkem India Limited                             133     7.29.1.13             Savino Micron (India) Pvt Limited                134     7.29.1.14             Aranthangi Chemical Products Limited             134     7.29.1.15             Kunal Calcium Limited                            134     7.29.1.16             Saurashtra Solid Industries Pvt Limited          134     7.29.1.17             Alankar Mineral Industries                       135     7.29.1.18             Chemical & Mineral Industries (Pvt) Limited      135     7.29.1.19             Gangotri Inorganic (P) Limited                   135     7.29.1.20             Jay Minerals                                     135     7.29.1.21             Kalpana Minerals and Chemicals                   135     7.29.1.22             Kotak Chemicals Limited                          135                       7.3 Indonesia                                        136     7.30.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Indonesia            136     7.30.1.1              Asia Pulp and Paper (APP)                        137     7.30.1.2              PT Camco Omya                                    137     7.30.1.3              Imerys                                           138     7.30.1.4              PT Supersonic Chemical Industries                138     7.30.1.5              PT Inti Kalsium Indonesia                        138     7.30.1.6              PT Finexco Prima                                 138     7.30.1.7              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)         139     7.30.1.8              PT Bumi Kencana Murni Chemical Industry          139     7.30.1.9              PT Light Calsindo Raya                           139     7.30.1.10             PT Kalsitech Prima                               139                      7.31 Iran                                             139     7.31.1                Omya                                             140     7.31.2                Iran Powder Manufacturing                        140     7.31.3                Poudrsazan Industrial and Mineral Group          141     7.31.4                Micronized Powder Company                        141     7.31.5                Hadavi Corporation                               141     7.31.6                Chemie Madani Hamadan Company                    141     7.31.7                Other producers of GCC in Iran                   141                      7.32 Israel                                           142     7.32.1                M.P. Minerals and Marble                         142     7.32.2                Omya                                             142     7.32.3                K. G. Minerals                                   143                      7.33 Italy                                            143     7.33.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Italy                143     7.33.1.1              Omya                                             144     7.33.1.2              Imerys                                           145     7.33.1.3              Mineraria Sacilese SpA                           146     7.33.1.4              Umbria Filler srl                                146     7.33.1.5              Alpha Micron srl                                 146     7.33.1.6              Carbocalcio Cuneese SpA                          146     7.33.1.7              Nuovo Industria Calcite e Marmi srl              147     7.33.1.8              Nuova Sima srl                                   147     7.33.1.9              Solvay                                           147     7.33.1.10             Baslini SpA                                      147                      7.34 Jamaica                                          147     7.34.1                Producers of GCC in Jamaica                      148     7.34.1.1              Lydford Mining Company                           148     7.34.1.2              Hodges Minerals (Export) Limited                 149                      7.35 Japan                                            149     7.35.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Japan                149     7.35.1.1              Fimatec Limited (FMT)                            151     7.35.1.2              Bihoku Funka Kogyo Company Limited               152     7.35.1.3              Nitto Funka Kogyo KK                             152     7.35.1.4              Imerys                                           153     7.35.1.5              Okutama Kogyo Company Limited                    153     7.35.1.6              Maruo Calcium Company Limited                    154     7.35.1.7              Oji Paper Group                                  154     7.35.1.8              Calfine Company Limited                          154     7.35.1.9              Takehara Kagaku Kogyo Company Limited            155     7.35.1.10             Nippon Paper Group                               155     7.35.1.11             Shiraishi Kogyo Kaisha Limited (SKK)             155     7.35.1.12             Sankyo Seifun Company Limited                    156     7.35.1.13             Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)         156     7.35.1.14             Mitsubishi Paper Mills Limited                   156     7.35.1.15             Toyo Denka Kogyo Company Limited                 156     7.35.1.16             Yabashi Industries Company Limited               157                      7.36 Jordan                                           157     7.36.1                Producers of GCC in Jordan                       157     7.36.1.1              Jordan Minerals Establishment (JME)              157     7.36.1.2              Omya                                             158     7.36.1.3              Al-Ahlia Mining Company                          158     7.36.1.4              National Carbonate Company                       158     7.36.2                Future producers of GCC in Jordan                158                      7.37 Kazakhstan                                       159     7.37.1                Producers of GCC in Kazkhstan                    159     7.37.1.1              LLP Zhartas                                      159     7.37.1.2              JSC Zhambylgips                                  159     7.37.1.3              LLP Kurylys Zhanar                               160     7.37.2                Former producers of GCC in Kazakhstan            160     7.37.3                Potential GCC projects in Kazakhstan             160                      7.38 North Korea                                      160                      7.39 South Korea                                      161     7.39.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in South Korea          161     7.39.1.1              Omya                                             162     7.39.1.2              Taekyung Industrial Company Limited              163     7.39.1.3              Kwang Sung Chemical Company                      163     7.39.1.4              Baek Kwang Mineral Products Company Limited      163     7.39.1.5              Solvay                                           164                           Yabashi Limestone Techs Korea Company     7.39.1.6              Limited                                          164                       7.4 Macedonia                                        164                      7.41 Malaysia                                         165     7.41.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Malaysia             165     7.41.1.1              Imerys                                           166     7.41.1.2              Omya                                             166     7.41.1.3              Calrock Sdn Bhd                                  167     7.41.1.4              Kinta Powdertech Sdn Bhd                         167     7.41.1.5              Zantat Sdn Bhd                                   167     7.41.1.6              Takehara Kagaku Kogyo Company Limited            167     7.41.1.7              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)         167     7.41.1.8              Schaefer Kalk GmbH and Company KG                168     7.41.1.9              Syarikat Cheng Sun Quarry Sdn Bhd                168     7.41.1.10             Calcium Carbonate Manufacturers Sdn Bhd          168     7.41.1.11             HardRock Calcium Sdn Bhd                         168     7.41.1.12             Mutual Way Lime Products Sdn Bhd                 168     7.41.1.13             Nanocarb Technology Sdn Bhd                      169     7.41.1.14             TKN Calcium Industries (M) Sdn. Bhd              169     7.41.1.15             Umpan Global Malaysia Sdn Bhd                    169                           Potential producers of GCC and PCC in     7.41.2                Malaysia                                         169                      7.42 Mexico                                           170     7.42.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Mexico               170     7.42.1.1              Omya                                             171     7.42.1.2              Grupo Industrial Avalos Rubio                    171     7.42.1.3              AT SA                                            172     7.42.1.4              Molinas de Norte                                 172     7.42.1.5              Estens Minerales no Metalicos                    172     7.42.1.6              Orfo SA de CV                                    172     7.42.1.7              Zacarias Grupo Industrial                        173     7.42.1.8              Imerys                                           173     7.42.1.9              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)         173     7.42.1.10             Inmin                                            173     7.42.1.11             Grupo Materias Primas                            174     7.42.2                S.A. Reverté                                     174     7.42.2.1              Secadora Industrial SA (SECASA)                  174                      7.43 Morocco                                          174                      7.44 Netherlands                                      175     7.44.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in the Netherlands      175                      7.45 New Zealand                                      175     7.45.1                Producers of GCC in New Zealand                  175     7.45.1.1              Omya                                             176     7.45.1.2              Holcim                                           176                      7.46 Norway                                           176     7.46.1                Producers of GCC in Norway                       177     7.46.1.1              Omya                                             177                      7.47 Oman                                             178     7.47.1.1              Rima Carbonate Industries LLC                    178                      7.48 Pakistan                                         179                      7.49 Peru                                             179                       7.5 Philippines                                      179     7.50.1                Producers of GCC in the Philippines              179     7.50.1.1              Teresa Marble Corporation                        180     7.50.1.2              C & B Marble                                     180                      7.51 Poland                                           180     7.51.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Poland               181     7.51.1.1              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)         181     7.51.1.2              Ciech SA                                         182     7.51.1.3              Omya                                             182     7.51.1.4              Other producers of GCC and PCC in Poland         182                      7.52 Portugal                                         182     7.52.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Portugal             182     7.52.1.1              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)         183     7.52.1.2              Omya                                             183                      7.53 Romania                                          184     7.53.1                Producers of GCC in Romania                      184                      7.54 Russia                                           184     7.54.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Russia               184     7.54.1.1              JSC Melstrom                                     186     7.54.1.2              CJSC Koelgamramor                                187     7.54.1.3              RIF Mikromramor                                  187     7.54.1.4              JSC Ruslime                                      187     7.54.1.5              Omya                                             188     7.54.1.6              JSC Shebekinsky-Melovoy Zavod                    188                           JSC Kopanishchensky Kombinat Stroitelnykh     7.54.1.7              Materialov                                       189     7.54.1.8              JSC Stroimaterialy                               189     7.54.1.9              LLC Mramorprirodresurs                           189     7.54.1.10             LLC Microkaltsit                                 189     7.54.1.11             JSC Geokom                                       189     7.54.1.12             JSC Balakovorezino-Tekhnika                      190     7.54.1.13             JSC Uraltalk                                     190     7.54.1.14             LLC Polygon-Service                              190     7.54.2                Former producers of GCC in Russia                190     7.54.2.1              JSC Stoilensky GOK                               191     7.54.2.2              LLC Domedco Hakscly Limited                      191     7.54.2.3              Baikalskiye Mineraly                             191     7.54.3                Consumption of GCC in Russia                     191                      7.55 Saudi Arabia                                     192     7.55.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Saudi Arabia         192     7.55.1.1              Saudi Carbonate Company Limited                  192     7.55.1.2              Saudi Marble Company                             193     7.55.1.3              Saudi Sand Lime Bricks & Building Company        193     7.55.1.4              Al-Marbaie Group                                 193                      7.56 Serbia                                           193     7.56.1                Producers of GCC in Serbia                       194     7.56.1.1              Omya                                             194     7.56.1.2              MAT Produkt VinÄa                               194                      7.57 Slovakia                                         194     7.57.1.1              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)         195                      7.58 Slovenia                                         195                      7.59 South Africa                                     195     7.59.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in South Africa         195     7.59.1.1              Idwala Industrial Holdings                       196     7.59.1.2              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)         196                       7.6 Spain                                            196     7.60.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Spain                197     7.60.1.1              Omya                                             197     7.60.1.2              SA Reverté                                       198     7.60.1.3              Provençale SA                                    199     7.60.1.4              Minera del Santo Ángel S.L.                      199     7.60.1.5              Triturados Cálcicos SA (TRICALSA)                199     7.60.1.6              Blancs Minerals de Pere Vidal SA                 199     7.60.1.7              Minas Volcán SA                                  199     7.60.1.8              Minerals i Derivats SA                           200     7.60.1.9              Triturados Blanco Macael SA                      200     7.60.1.10             Vicente Corona SA                                200     7.60.1.11             Cales de Llierca SA                              200                      7.61 Sweden                                           201     7.61.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Sweden               201     7.61.1.1              Imerys                                           202     7.61.1.2              Omya                                             203                      7.62 Switzerland                                      203     7.62.1.1              Omya                                             203                      7.63 Syria                                            207                      7.64 Taiwan                                           208     7.64.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Taiwan               208     7.64.1.1              Lih Hsiang Industrial Corporation                209     7.64.1.2              Formosa Plastics Corporation                     209     7.64.1.3              Me Lin White-Stone Chemical Limited              210     7.64.1.4              Omya                                             210     7.64.1.5              Imerys                                           210                           Yuncheng Chemical Industrial Company     7.64.1.6              Limited                                          210     7.64.1.7              Shuo Yang Enterprise Company Limited             211                      7.65 Thailand                                         211     7.65.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Thailand             211     7.65.1.1              Surint Omya Chemicals                            212     7.65.1.2              Calcium Products Company Limited                 212     7.65.1.3              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)         213     7.65.1.4              Golden Lime Company Limited                      213     7.65.1.5              Quality Minerals Public Company Limited          213     7.65.1.6              Fimatec Limited                                  214     7.65.1.7              Imerys                                           214     7.65.1.8              Lime Quality Company Limited                     214                      7.66 Tunisia                                          214     7.66.1                Producers of GCC in Tunisia                      214     7.66.1.1              Imerys                                           215     7.66.1.2              Société de Fabrication de Poudre (SOFAP)         215                           Broyage Ensachage et Production des     7.66.1.3              Produits Chimiques                           (BEPPC)                                          215                      7.67 Turkey                                           215     7.67.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Turkey               216     7.67.1.1              Omya                                             217                           Anadolu Mikronize Madencilik Sanayi ve     7.67.1.2              Ticaret AS                                       217     7.67.1.3              Esen Mikronize Maden Sanayi ve Ticaret AS        217                           NiÄŸtaÅŸ Mikronize Kalsit Sanayi ve Ticaret     7.67.1.4              AS                                               218     7.67.1.5              Kombassan Group                                  218     7.67.1.6              Imerys                                           219     7.67.1.7              SinpaÅŸ Group                                    219                           Erciyes Mikron Kireç ve TuÄŸla Kimya Sanayi     7.67.1.8              AS                                               219     7.67.1.9              Aydin Madencilik Limited AS                      219     7.67.1.10             Meka Maden Sanayi ve Ticaret AS                  220     7.67.1.11             NidaÅŸ Mikronize Kalsit AS                       220     7.67.1.12             Barit Maden Türk AS                              220                           Turmet Madencilik ve InÅŸaat Sanayi ve     7.67.1.13             Ticaret Limited                                  220                           Gülmer Mining Industry and Trade     7.67.1.14             Incorporated                                     220                      7.68 Uganda                                           221                      7.69 Ukraine                                          221     7.69.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Ukraine              221                           CSJC Novgorod-Seversky plant of building     7.69.1.1              materials                                        222     7.69.1.2              LLC Industrial Union of Slavic Soda              222     7.69.1.3              JSC Berezanskoe "Nedra"                          222     7.69.1.4              SC Slavyansky Melo-Izvestkovy Zavod              222     7.69.1.5              Private JSC Volcheyarovsky Melovoi Kar'er        223     7.69.1.6              Reaktiv Limited                                  223                       7.7 United Arab Emirates                             223     7.70.1                General Mineral Industries Company LLC           224     7.70.2                Emirates Calcium Carbonate Factory Limited       224                      7.71 United Kingdom                                   224     7.71.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in the UK               225     7.71.1.1              Omya                                             225     7.71.1.2              Minelco Limited                                  226     7.71.1.3              Longcliffe Quarries Limited                      227     7.71.1.4              Imerys Minerals Limited                          227     7.71.1.5              Solvay Advanced Functional Minerals (SAFM)       228     7.71.1.6              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)         228     7.71.1.7              Ben Bennett, Jr                                  228                      7.72 Uruguay                                          228                      7.73 USA                                              228     7.73.1                Production of PCC in the USA                     229     7.73.2                Producers of GCC and PCC in the USA              230     7.73.2.1              Imerys                                           232     7.73.2.2              Omya                                             234     7.73.2.3              Minerals Technologies Incorporated (MTI)         235     7.73.2.4              Huber Engineered Materials                       241     7.73.2.5              Carmeuse Lime and Stone Limited                  242     7.73.2.6              Lhoist                                           243     7.73.2.7              CRH Limited                                      245     7.73.2.8              Graymont Incorporated                            246     7.73.2.9              Excalibar Minerals LLC                           246     7.73.2.10             Mississippi Lime Company                         246     7.73.2.11             Great Lakes Calcium Corporation                  247     7.73.2.12             Gardenscape Incorporated                         247     7.73.2.13             Vulcan Materials Company                         247     7.73.2.14             Finch Paper LLC                                  248     7.73.2.15             Cerne Calcium Carbonate LLC                      248     7.73.2.16             Linwood Mining & Minerals Corporation            248     7.73.3                Potential GCC operations in the USA              248                      7.74 Venezuela                                        249                      7.75 Vietnam                                          249     7.75.1                Producers of GCC and PCC in Vietnam              249                           Vietnam Mineral Powder Joint Stock Company     7.75.1.1              (VMPC)                                           250                           Yen Bai Cement and Minerals Joint Stock     7.75.1.2              Company                                          250     7.75.1.3              Asia Minerals Joint Stock Company (AMC)          251     7.75.1.4              Minh Duc Chemical Stockshare Company             251                           Vietnam Construction and Import-Export Joint Stock     7.75.1.5              Corporation                           (Vinaconex)                                      251     7.75.1.6              Vinafame Company Limited                         251                           Huu Nghi Production-Trading Joint Stock     7.75.1.7              Company                                          252                           Surint Omya Chemicals (Vietnam) Company     7.75.1.8              Limited                                          252     7.75.1.9              Mien Trung Minerals Joint Stock Company          252     7.75.1.10             Imerys                                           252     7.75.1.11             Lien Hiep Company Limited                        253     7.75.1.12             Nam Trung Nghe An Joint Stock Company            253                           Ho Chi Minh City Chemical Joint Stock     7.75.1.13             Company                                          253     7.75.1.14             Mong Son Joint Stock Company                     253     7.75.2                GCC and PCC projects in Vietnam                  253     7.75.2.1              Vietnam Mining Corporation (VNMC)                254     7.75.2.2              Cavico Industry and Minerals                     254                      7.76 Zambia                                           254                           8 International trade in GCC and PCC               255                       8.1 World trade in calcium carbonate                 256     8.1.1                 US trade in PCC                                  259                           World trade in marble granules, chipping                       8.2 and powder                                       259                           9 World consumption of GCC and PCC                 264                           World consumption of GCC by region and end                       9.1 use                                              264                           World consumption of PCC by region and end                       9.2 use                                              265                       9.3 Consumption of GCC and PCC in China              265                          10 Forecast demand for GCC and PCC                  267                      10.1 Forecast demand for GCC                          267                      10.2 Forecast demand for PCC                          268                          11 Applications for calcium carbonate               270                          12 Use of calcium carbonate in paper                271                      12.1 Types of paper                                   271                           Competing filler and coating pigments in                      12.2 paper manufacture                                272     12.2.1                Physical properties of paper pigments            274                      12.3 Paper filling                                    275                      12.4 Paper coating                                    276                      12.5 World production of paper                        277     12.5.1                World production of paper and paperboard         279                      12.6 Leading manufacturers of paper                   285     12.6.1                International Paper                              285     12.6.2                Stora Enso                                       286     12.6.3                UPM-Kymmene                                      288                           Paper mills with satellite calcium                      12.7 carbonate plants                                 290                      12.8 World consumption of paper and paperboard        293                      12.9 Consumption of minerals in paper                 294                      12.1 Consumption of GCC and PCC in paper              299                     12.11 Future demand for GCC and PCC in paper           300                          13 Use of calcium carbonate in plastics             304                           Use of extender and filler minerals in                      13.1 plastics                                         304                      13.2 The plastics industry                            307                      13.3 World production and demand for plastics         308                      13.4 Use of calcium carbonate in plastics             312                           Use of calcium carbonate in polyvinyl     13.4.1                chloride (PVC)                                   313     13.4.1.1              World PVC capacity                               313     13.4.1.2              Main producers of PVC                            314     13.4.1.3              World demand for PVC                             315                           Use of calcium carbonate in polypropylene     13.4.2                (PP)                                             317     13.4.2.1              Demand for polypropylene                         318                           Use of calcium carbonate in polyethylene     13.4.3                (PE)                                             319                      13.5 Consumption of GCC and PCC in plastics           320                      13.6 Future demand for GCC and PCC in plastics        323                          14 Use of calcium carbonate in paint                326                      14.1 Components of paint                              326                           Use of extender and filler minerals in                      14.2 paint                                            326                      14.3 Structure of the world paint industry            328                      14.4 Regional markets for architectural paint         329     14.4.1                Shipments of paint in the USA                    330     14.4.2                Production of paint in Japan                     332                      14.5 Consumption of GCC and PCC in paint              333                      14.6 Future demand for GCC and PCC in paint           334                          15 Use of calcium carbonate in rubber               336                           Use of filler and extender minerals in                      15.1 rubber                                           336                      15.2 Use of GCC and PCC in rubber                     337                      15.3 Producers of GCC and PCC for use in rubber       338                      15.4 World production of synthetic rubber             339     15.4.1                World consumption of synthetic rubber            341                      15.5 Production of natural rubber                     342                      15.6 Consumption of natural rubber                    343                      15.7 Consumption of GCC and PCC in rubber             343                      15.8 Forecast demand for GCC and PCC in rubber        344                             Use of calcium carbonate in adhesives and                        16 sealants                                         345                           Adhesive and sealant formulations and                      16.1 components                                       345                           Use of filler and extender minerals in                      16.2 adhesives and sealants                           345                           Producers of calcium carbonate for use in                      16.3 adhesives and sealants                           346                      16.4 Production of adhesives and sealants             347                      16.5 Markets for adhesives and sealants               349                           Consumption of GCC and PCC in adhesives and                      16.6 sealants                                         350                           Future demand for GCC and PCC in adhesives                      16.7 and sealants                                     350                          17 Other applications for GCC and PCC               351                      17.1 Carpet backing                                   351                      17.2 Pharmaceuticals and food                         352                      17.3 Oilfield minerals                                353                      17.4 Cultured marble                                  354                      17.5 Toothpaste                                       355                      17.6 Rotogravure printing inks                        356                      17.7 Roof shingles                                    357                      17.8 Cement and concrete                              357                      17.9 Environmental uses                               357                           Consumption of GCC and PCC in other                      17.1 applications                                     358                           Future demand for GCC and PCC in other                     17.11 applications                                     359                          18 Prices of GCC and PCC                            360                      18.1 Prices of GCC                                    361                      18.2 Published increases in GCC prices                363                      18.3 Prices of PCC                                    364                      18.4 Announced increases in PCC prices                366       List of tables                             Page       Table 1: World: Calcium carbonate deposits containing >25Mt of     estimated resources, 2012                                       9     Table 2: Chemistry     and brightness of     different types of     natural calcium     carbonate                                                      10     Table 3: Examples     of calcium     carbonate used in     GCC production                                                 12     Table 4: Particle     size range for GCC     by processing route                                            13     Table 5: Particle     size range for     different GCC     applications by     likely processing     route                                                          14     Table 6: Chemical     composition of GCC     products                                                       26     Table 7: Chemical     composition of PCC     products by process                                            26     Table 8: Properties     of calcium     carbonate fillers                                              27     Table 9: Properties     of calcium     carbonate pigments                                             27     Table 10: World: Estimated GCC and PCC      capacity by region, country and     type, 2012                                                     31     Table 11: World:     Identified GCC and     PCC capacity by     main companies,     2012                                                           33     Table 12: World:     GCC capacity     controlled by main     companies, 2012                                                34     Table 13: World:     PCC capacity     controlled by main     companies, 2012                                                34     Table 14: GCC and     PCC projects and     expansions                                                     35     Table 15: Selected     countries:     Production of GCC,     2002 to 2011                                                   36     Table 16: Selected     countries:     Production of PCC,     2002 to 2011                                                   36     Table 17:     Argentina: Details     of GCC and PCC     producers, 2012                                                39     Table 18: Imerys:     Details of PCC     plants in     Argentina, 2012                                                40     Table 19:     Australia: Details     of GCC operations,     2012                                                           41     Table 20: Austria:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                           44     Table 21: Belgium:     Details of calcium     carbonate     producers, 2012                                                47     Table 22:     SCR-Sibelco:     Details of calcium     carbonate     operations, 2012                                               48     Table 23: Brazil:     Details of GCC and     PCC producers, 2012                                            50     Table 24: Brazil:     MTI: Details of PCC     plants, 2012                                                   52     Table 25: Canada:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                           56     Table 26: Graymont:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                           57     Table 27: Chile:     Production of     coquina and white     calcium carbonate,     2001 to 2010                                                   59     Table 28: Chile:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                           60     Table 29: Chile:     Other producers of     calcium carbonate     in Chile, 2012                                                 61     Table 30: China:     Calcium carbonate     production by     particle size, 2011                                            63     Table 31: China:     PCC production by     province in order     of size, 2007                                                  65     Table 32: China:     PCC production by     province in order     of size, 2006                                                  66     Table 33: China:     Details of     producers of fine     and superfine PCC,     2012                                                           67     Table 34: China:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                           68     Table 35: Asia Pulp     and Paper: Details     of GCC and PCC     operations in     China, 2012                                                    75     Table 36: Imerys:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations in     China, 2012                                                    76     Table 37: Omya:     Details of GCC     operations in     China, 2012                                                    78     Table 38:     ShengdaTech:     Details of PCC     operations, 2012                                               80     Table 39: Colombia:     Details of GCC     operations, 2012                                               97     Table 40: Czech     Republic: Producers     of GCC and PCC,     2011                                                           99     Table 41: Denmark:     Producers of GCC,     2011                                                          100     Table 42: Egypt:     Details of GCC     operations, 2012                                              102     Table 43: Finland:     Limestone     production by mine,     2009                                                          104     Table 44: Finland:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          106     Table 45: France:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          109     Table 46:     Provençale: Details     of GCC operations,     2012                                                          111     Table 47: Imerys:     Carbonate mineral     reserves and     resource estimates,     2010                                                          112     Table 48: Imerys:     General structure,     2012                                                          112     Table 49: Imerys:     GCC and PCC     facilities by     business group,     2010                                                          113     Table 50: Imerys:     Performance     Minerals GCC and     PCC facilities     worldwide, 2012                                               113     Table 51: Imerys:     Pigments for Paper     & Packaging GCC and     PCC facilities,     2012                                                          114     Table 52: Imerys: Summary of GCC and PCC capacity      by region, country     and plant, 2012                                               115     Table 53: Germany:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          119     Table 54: Alpha     Calcit: Details of     GCC operations,     2012                                                          121     Table 55: Schaefer     Kalk: Details of     PCC operations,     2012                                                          122     Table 56: Greece:     Details of GCC     operations, 2012                                              125     Table 57: India:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          128     Table 58:     Indonesia: Details     of GCC and PCC     operations, 2012                                              137     Table 59: Iran:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          140     Table 60: Italy:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          144     Table 61: Jamaica:     Details of calcium     carbonate deposits                                            148     Table 62: Jamaica:     Details of GCC     operations, 2012                                              148     Table 63: Japan:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          150     Table 64: Okutama     Kogyo: Details of     PCC operations,     2012                                                          154     Table 65: Jordan:     Details of GCC     operations, 2012                                              157     Table 66:     Kazakhstan:     Production of GCC     by company, 2001 to     2010                                                          159     Table 67: North     Korea: Marble     deposits     potentially     suitable for GCC     production                                                    160     Table 68: South     Korea: Details of     GCC and PCC     operations, 2012                                              162     Table 69: Solvay     Advanced Functional     Minerals: Details     of PCC operations,     2012                                                          164     Table 70: Malaysia:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          165     Table 71: Mexico:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          171     Table 72: New     Zealand: Details of     GCC operations,     2012                                                          176     Table 73:     Philippines:     Details of GCC     operations, 2012                                              180     Table 74: Poland: Production, trade      and consumption of chalk and GCC,     2001 to 2009                                                  181     Table 75: Portugal:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          183     Table 76: Russia:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          185     Table 77: Russia:     Production of GCC     by selected     companies, 2002 to     2010                                                          186     Table 78: Russia:     Apparent     consumption of GCC,     2001 to 2010                                                  191     Table 79: Saudi     Arabia: Details of     GCC and PCC     operations, 2012                                              192     Table 80: Serbia:     Details of GCC     operations, 2012                                              194     Table 81: South     Africa: Details of     GCC and PCC     operations, 2012                                              196     Table 82: Spain:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          197     Table 83: Sweden:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          202     Table 84: Omya:     Estimated GCC and     PCC capacity by     region, 2012                                                  204     Table 85: Omya:     Identified GCC and     PCC capacity by     country, 2012                                                 204     Table 86: Taiwan:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          209     Table 87: Thailand:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          212     Table 88: Tunisia:     Details of GCC     operations, 2012                                              215     Table 89: Turkey:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          216     Table 90: Ukraine:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          221     Table 91: Ukraine:     Production of GCC     by company, 2001 to     2010                                                          222     Table 92: United     Arab Emirates:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          223     Table 93: Great     Britain: Production     of limestone,     dolomite and chalk     for industrial     applications, 2000     to 2009                                                       224     Table 94: UK:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          225     Table 95: USA: Production, trade and apparent consumption      of PCC, 2000 to 2010                                          229     Table 96: USA: Lime sold or used by producers for use in PCC     production, 2000 to 2010                                      230     Table 97: USA:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          231     Table 98: Imerys:     US PCC operations,     2012                                                          234     Table 99: Mineral     Technologies:     Satellite PCC     capacity by plant,     2012                                                          237     Table 100: Mineral     Technologies:     Merchant PCC     capacity by plant,     2012                                                          238     Table 101: Mineral     Technologies:     Additional PCC     capacity 2000 to     2013                                                          239     Table 102: Mineral     Technologies:     Closed PCC     capacity, 2000 to     2012                                                          240     Table 103: Lhoist:     Estimated capacity     of US limestone     operations and     uses, 2011                                                    244     Table 104: Vietnam:     Details of GCC and     PCC operations,     2012                                                          250     Table 105: World:     Exports of calcium     carbonate from main     countries, 2001 to     2010                                                          257     Table 106: World:     Imports of calcium     carbonate into main     countries, 2001 to     2010                                                          258     Table 107: World: Exports of marble granules,      chipping and powder from     main countries, 2001 to 2010                                  261     Table 108: World: Imports of marble granules,      chipping and powder by     main countries, 2001 to 2010                                  263     Table 109: World: Estimated regional consumption      of GCC and PCC by market, 2011                                264     Table 110: World:     Estimated     consumption of GCC     by region by     market, 2011                                                  264     Table 111: World:     Estimated regional     consumption of PCC     by market, 2011                                               265     Table 112: World:     Forecast demand for     GCC and PCC by     market, 2011 and     2016                                                          267     Table 113: World:     Forecast regional     demand for GCC and     PCC by market, 2016                                           267     Table 114: World:     Forecast demand for     GCC by market, 2011     and 2016                                                      268     Table 115: World:     Forecast regional     demand for GCC by     market, 2016                                                  268     Table 116: World:     Forecast demand for     PCC by market, 2011     and 2016                                                      269     Table 117: World:     Forecast regional     demand for PCC by     market, 2016                                                  269     Table 118:     Functions and     specifications of     GCC by main     application                                                   270     Table 119: Paper:     Grades, fibre     composition,     pigment loading and     end uses                                                      272     Table 120: Comparison between properties of kaolin,      PCC and GCC in     paper production                                              274     Table 121:     Advantages and     disadvantages of     GCC and PCC used in     paper                                                         275     Table 122: CEPI:     Key data for the     regional paper     industry, 1991 and     2010                                                          278     Table 123: World:     Production of paper     and paperboard by     region, 2000 to     2010                                                          280     Table 124: World: Average annual growth in      production of paper and     paperboard by region, 2000 to 2010                            281     Table 125: World:     Regional production     of paper and     paperboard by     grade, 2010                                                   281     Table 126: World: Production of paper and      paperboard by region and     main countries, 2002 to 2010                                  282     Table 127: Selected countries: Production      of main papers containing     minerals by category, 2010                                    284     Table 128: International Paper:      Pulp and paper production capacity by     region and grade, 2010                                        285     Table 129:     International     Paper: Sales of     main products, 2008     to 2010                                                       286     Table 130: Stora     Enso: Details of     mills producing     news and book     paper, 2012                                                   287     Table 131: Stora     Enso: Details of     mills producing     magazine paper,     2012                                                          287     Table 132: Stora     Enso: Details of     mills producing     fine paper, 2012                                              287     Table 133: Stora Enso: Details of mills      producing packaging papers and     board, 2012                                                   288     Table 134:     UPM-Kymmene:     Details of paper     mills, 2012                                                   289     Table 135: World: Paper mills with      associated satellite calcium     carbonate plants, 2012                                        290     Table 136: World:     Satellite calcium     carbonate capacity     by region, 2011                                               293     Table 137: World: Apparent consumption      of paper and paperboard by     region, 2002 to 2010                                          294     Table 138: Paper:     Typical filler     pigment contents of     printing papers                                               295     Table 139: Paper:     Typical coating     pigment levels of     printing papers                                               295     Table 140: World: Estimated consumption of      minerals in newsprint in     main producing countries, 2009 and 2010                       296     Table 141: World: Estimated consumption of      minerals in uncoated     printing and writing paper in main producing      countries, 2009 and 2010                                      296     Table 142: World: Estimated consumption      of minerals in coated printing     and writing paper in main producing      countries, 2009 and 2010                                      297     Table 143: World: Estimated consumption      of minerals in board in main     producing countries, 2009 and 2010                            297     Table 144: Leading countries: Estimated      total consumption of minerals     in paper and paperboard, 2009 and 2010                        298     Table 145: World: Estimated consumption      of minerals by type of paper,     2000 to 2011                                                  298     Table 146: World: Estimated regional      consumption of minerals by type     of paper, 2010                                                299     Table 147: World: Estimated consumption      of GCC and PCC in paper by     region, 2011                                                  299     Table 148: World: Historical and forecast      growth in GDP by region,     2000 to 2010 and 2012 to 2016                                 301     Table 149: World:     Forecast demand for     GCC and PCC in     paper by region,     2016                                                          303     Table 150: Main     industrial minerals     used in plastics                                              305     Table 151:     Plastics: Use of     minerals to improve     properties                                                    306     Table 152:     Densities of main     mineral fillers and     resins                                                        307     Table 153: Examples     of mineral loadings     in plastics                                                   307     Table 154: World:     Demand for plastics     by region, 2007 to     2015                                                          308     Table 155: World:     Demand for plastics     by type, 2007 to     2015                                                          308     Table 156: Asia:     Demand for plastics     by type, 2007 to     2015                                                          309     Table 157: Europe:     Demand for plastics     by type, 2007 to     2015                                                          309     Table 158: NAFTA:     Demand for plastics     by type, 2007 to     2015                                                          309     Table 159: USA:     Production of     leading plastic     resins, 2006 to     2010                                                          310     Table 160: Japan: Production of selected      thermoplastic resins by type,     2002 to 2010                                                  311     Table 161: Japan:     Production of     plastic products by     type, 2002 to 2010                                            311     Table 162: USA:     Sales and captive     use of selected     thermoplastic     resins by major     market, 2003 to     2010                                                          312     Table 163: Summary     of calcium     carbonate use in     plastics                                                      312     Table 164: World:     Demand for PVC by     region, 2009 to     2015                                                          316     Table 165: World:     Regional use of PVC     by product, 2010                                              316     Table 166: World:     Regional use of PVC     by product, 2015                                              317     Table 167: World:     Demand for     polypropylene by     region, 2009 to     2015                                                          318     Table 168: World:     Regional use of     polypropylene by     product, 2010                                                 318     Table 169: World:     Regional use of     polypropylene by     product, 2015                                                 319     Table 170: World: Construction of new      residential buildings in     selected countries, 2002 to 2010                              321     Table 171: World: Construction of new      non-residential buildings in     selected countries, 2002 to 2010                              321     Table 172: World: Estimated consumption      of GCC and PCC in plastics by     region, 2011                                                  323     Table 173: World:     Forecast demand for     plastics by region,     2010 to 2015                                                  323     Table 174: World: Forecast regional      growth in demand for selected     plastics, 2010 to 2015                                        324     Table 175: World:     Forecast demand for     GCC and PCC in     plastics by region,     2016                                                          324     Table 176:     Properties of     extender minerals     used in paint     formulations                                                  327     Table 177: Paint:     Reasons for using     GCC                                                           328     Table 178: World:     Leading coatings     companies, 2000,     2008 and 2011                                                 329     Table 179: USA:     Shipments of     coatings, 2000 to     2011                                                          331     Table 180: World: Estimated consumption      of GCC and PCC in paint by     region, 2011                                                  333     Table 181: World: Regional demand for      architectural paint, 2003, 2008,     2010, 2013, 2015 and 2018                                     334     Table 182: World:     Forecast demand for     GCC and PCC in     paint by region,     2016                                                          334     Table 183:     Properties of     important rubber     reinforcement     materials                                                     336     Table 184: World: Estimated synthetic      rubber production capacity by     type and country, 2010                                        337     Table 185: Imerys:     North American GCC     products     recommended for use     in rubber                                                     338     Table 186: Imerys: Comparison of #10 White(R)      and Micro-White 100(R)     DGCC products                                                 338     Table 187: World:     Production of     synthetic rubber by     main regions, 2000     to 2010                                                       340     Table 188: China:     Production of     synthetic rubber,     2000 to 2010                                                  341     Table 189: World:     Consumption of     synthetic rubber by     main regions, 2000     to 2010                                                       342     Table 190: World:     Production of     natural rubber by     main regions, 2000     to 2010                                                       342     Table 191: World:     Consumption of     natural rubber by     main regions, 2000     to 2010                                                       343     Table 192: World: Estimated consumption      of GCC and PCC in rubber by     region, 2011                                                  343     Table 193: World:     Forecast demand for     GCC and PCC in     rubber by region,     2016                                                          344     Table 194:     Components of     adhesives and     sealants                                                      345     Table 195: China:     Production and     sales of adhesives     and sealants, 2006     to 2008                                                       347     Table 196: Japan:     Production of     adhesives and     sealants, 2003 to     2010                                                          348     Table 197: World: Estimated consumption      of GCC and PCC in adhesives     and sealants by region, 2011                                  350     Table 198: World: Forecast demand for      GCC and PCC in adhesives and     sealants by region, 2016                                      350     Table 199: Imerys:      GCC products for     drilling fluids                                               354     Table 200: World: Sales of inks and      graphic arts materials by main     companies,  2010                                              356     Table 201: Imerys:     GCC grades used in     water treatment                                               358     Table 202: World: Estimated consumption      of GCC and PCC in other     applications by region, 2011                                  358     Table 203: World: Forecast demand for GCC and PCC in other     applications by region, 2016                                  359     Table 204: World: Selected GCC and PCC      prices from trading websites,     February 2012      361     Table 205: UK: GCC     prices, ex-works,     1991 to 2012                                                  362     Table 206: USA:     Prices of GCC, 1997     to 2009                                                       362     Table 207: USA:     Prices of GCC, 2009     to 2012                                                       362     Table 208: Imerys:     Announced changes     in US GCC prices,     2002 to 2011                                                  363     Table 209: USA:     Prices of PCC, 2002     to 2012                                                       364     Table 210: UK:     Prices of PCC,     ex-works, 1993 to     2012                                                          364     Table 211: USA:     Average value of     quarterly PCC     production, 2001 to     2011                                                          365       List of Figures       Figure 1: World:     Estimated regional     consumption of GCC     and PCC by end use,     2011                                                            1     Figure 2: World:     Estimated capacity     for GCC and PCC by     main area, 2012                                                 3     Figure 3: World:     Estimated capacity     for GCC and PCC by     main companies,     2012                                                            4     Figure 4: World: Consumption and forecast      demand for GCC and PCC by     end use, 2011 and 2016                                          6     Figure 5: Dry and     wet processing     routes for GCC                                                 14     Figure 6: PCC     slurry production     flow chart                                                     20     Figure 7: PCC     production by     filler recycling     process                                                        23     Figure 8: Range of     pigment brightness     values                                                         28     Figure 9: World:     Estimated GCC and     PCC capacity by     region, 2012                                                   29     Figure 10: World:     Estimated GCC     capacity by major     country, 2012                                                  30     Figure 11: World:     Estimated PCC     capacity by major     country, 2012                                                  30     Figure 12: China:     Estimated     production of GCC     and PCC, 2008 to     2011                                                           62     Figure 13: China:     Production of PCC,     2002 to 2011                                                   65     Figure 14: Finland:     Estimated     production of GCC     and PCC, 1999 to     2009                                                          105     Figure 15: USA:     Quarterly     production of PCC,     2000 to 2011                                                  230     Figure 16: USA:     Exports and imports     of PCC, 1996 to     2010                                                          259     Figure 17: China:     Estimated     consumption of GCC     and PCC by market,     2010                                                          266     Figure 18: CEPIPRINT: Deliveries of      mechanical publication papers     compared to capacity, 2000 to 2010                            279     Figure 19: World:     Production of paper     and paperboard by     region, 2000 to     2010                                                          280     Figure 20: World: Production of paper      and paperboard by main     countries, 2002 to 2010                                       282     Figure 21: World: Apparent consumption      of paper and paperboard by main     regions, 2002 to 2010                                         293     Figure 22: CEPI countries: Kaolin and      calcium carbonate consumption in     paper, 1991 to 2010                                           300     Figure 23: World: Estimated changes in      GCC and PCC use in paper, 2011     and 2016                                                      303     Figure 24: China:     Production of     primary plastics,     1990 to 2010                                                  310     Figure 25: China: Capacity, production      and operating rate of PVC     industry, 2000 to 2010                                        314     Figure 26: World:     Main producers of     PVC, 2011                                                     315     Figure 27: China: Floor space of buildings      under construction and     completed, 1990 to 2009                                       322     Figure 28: World: Estimated changes in GCC      and PCC use in plastics,     2011 and 2016                                                 325     Figure 29: World:     Estimated value of     regional markets     for decorative     paint, 2010                                                   330     Figure 30: USA:     Shipments of     coatings by type,     1985 to 2011                                                  331     Figure 31: USA: Shipments of architectural      coatings compared to     housing starts, 1985 to 2010                                  332     Figure 32: Japan:     Production and     shipments of paint,     1989 to 2010                                                  333     Figure 33: World:     Production of     synthetic rubber by     main regions, 2000     to 2010                                                       340     Figure 34: World:     Consumption of     synthetic rubber by     main regions, 2000     to 2010                                                       341     Figure 35: World:     Markets for     adhesives and     sealants, 2010                                                349     Figure 36:     Comparison of     published GCC, PCC     and kaolin prices,     March 2012                                                    360     Figure 37: USA: Comparison of average      annual prices of natural     gas and quicklime, 1980 to 2010                               366   


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